Day 1 – 4G LTE-Advanced (Jonathan Moss)
With the explosion in mobile data traffic, mobile networks are needing to introduce a range of extensions to 4G radio technology to continue to provide a good user experience.
This 1-day course explains the wide range of 4G features available within the LTE Advanced umbrella contained in 3GPP Releases 10-12.
We cover the topics of Dual Connectivity and Inter-site Carrier Aggregation, Enhanced Coordinated Multipoint and evolutions of MIMO.
We also explain the benefits of Small Cells, Relay Nodes and Heterogeneous Networks in making the most of the available radio spectrum.
- Carrier Aggregation (CA)
- MIMO evolution
- Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)
- Coordinated Mlitipoint (CoMP)
- Enhanced CoMP over non-ideal backhali (eCoMP)
- Dual connectivity (DC) and inter-site carrier aggregation
- Self Organizing Networks (SON)
- Relay nodes (RN)
- Device-to-device communication (D2D)
- LTE-Advanced optimization
- LTE Performance: data rates, coverage, capacity and latency
- CS Fallback and VoLTE optimization
- LTE mobility and packet scheduler optimization
Day 2 – 5G New Radio, Part One (Dr Harri Homa and Dr Antti Toskala)
This course covers the bridging technologies between LTE and 5G based on 3GPP Releases 13 and beyond.
We cover the concepts of LTE-Advanced Pro, often referred to as 4.5 or 4.9G and how 5G services can be enabled on top of LTE networks.
The course includes the topics of Internet of Things optimization, Narrowband IoT and MulteFire in unlicensed bands.
We also describe the use of WiFi as an aggregation layer, the provision of Public Safety services and low latency access.
- Explains LTE evolution steps in Releases 13 and beyond which enable 5G services on top of LTE network.
- 5G networks
- 5G schedule and targets
- 3GPP standardization
- 5G Technology Components
- Network Architecture
- Core network, cloud optimization and edge cloud
- Network Slicing and QoS
- Physical layer, waveforms and channel coding
- Numerology and frame structure
- Control channels
- Radio Protocols
- Spectral Efficiency
- Network Energy Efficiency
- 5G and LTE interworking
- 5G Devices
- MIMO / Massive MIMO
- 5G data rates
- 5G trial specifications
Day 3 – 5G New Radio, Part Two (Dr Harri Homa and Dr Antti Toskala)
In this session we cover the rapidly developing 5G radio from the low layers to the network architecture and deployment aspects.
We explain the 3GPP standardization process, the System Architecture and many of the enabling technologies including the use of mm spectrum, Massive MIMO, Network Slicing and QoS.
- IoT connectivity
- NB-IoT and Cat-M
- 3GPP standardization
- Network architecture
- Physical layer
- Control channels
- Integration with LTE networks
- Benchmarking with other IoT radios
Day 4 – 4G-5G Protocol Evolution (Neil Wiffen)
This course presents a technical description and comparison of key 4G and 5G protocols, including procedural overviews for various device and network activities.
Protocol structures and mechanisms that support communications across various interfaces are presented, including the Air Interface, 5GNR, NG-RAN, E-UTRAN and Core Network systems. Signalling principles and example signalling procedures are presented and Bearer / Connection setup mechanisms discussed. Protocol and Network architectures required to support several use-cases that have been introduced into the 5G specifications are also presented.
LTE / LTE-A Protocol Review
- Air Interface Protocols
- RAN Protocols
- 5G Architecture overview
- Release status
- NSA / SA principles
- Deployment options Interworking
- Service Provision evolution
- Understanding QoS
- Control and User Plane Separation
- 5G Core Network
- Network Functions and Services
- Service Based Architecture Principles
- Interfaces and Protocols
- Network Function Virtualization
- Software Defined Mobile Networking
- Mobile Edge Computing
- Network Slicing
- Session and Service Continuity
- NG-RAN Overview
- Node B variants
- Centralised and Distributed nodes
- NG-RAN Interfaces
- NG-RAN Protocols
- o NGAP
- o X2AP
- o F1AP
- NR Air Interface
- 5G Protocol enhancements
- PHY Layer Flexibility
- Latency Reduction
- Reliability Improvements
- Bandwidth Management
- 5G NAS
- Registration Management
- Connection Management
- Session Management
- Session and Service Continuity
Day 5 – 4G and 5G Design Challenges (Laurent Noël)
This session presents an overview of state of the art solutions and strategies used by chipset vendors to deliver cost efficient LTE-A Pro and 5G terminals/User Equipment (UE) with a focus on the RF subsystem and RF Front-End architectures.
Supporting the increasing number of bands and band combinations, maintaining radio performance, hardware cost and power consumption in multi-mode multi-standard smartphones poses serious design challenges. This course is a hands-on session looking at printed circuit boards (PCB), block diagrams and RF architecture solutions used by OEMs and chipset vendors to accommodate an ever increasing of frequency bands at near constant PCB area and BOM. Laboratory and field measurements are presented to compare 3GPP conformance tests vs real life operation and to illustrate end to end system performance for HSPA, LTE, LTE-A and VoLTE.
The content of this course is captured in the following book chapters:
- LTE for UMTS - OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access, Wiley & Sons, chapter 11 “Performance Requirements”, April 2009
- WCDMA for UMTS: HSPA Evolution and LTE, 5th Edition, Wiley & Sons, chapter 20, ” Terminal RF and Baseband Design Challenges”, August 2010
- LTE for UMTS: Evolution to LTE-Advanced, 2nd Edition, Wiley & Sons, chapter 14, “Performance Requirements”, April 2011
- HSPA+ Evolution to Release 12: Performance and Optimization, Wiley & Sons, chapter 14, “Multimode Multiband Terminal Design Challenges”, September 2014
- LTE Small Cell Optimization: 3GPP Evolution to Release 13, Wiley & Sons, Chapter 16, “Smartphone Optimization”, January 2016
Smartphone market status and trends:
- OEM market share and ranking
- 3GPP LTE-A and 5G NR setting fast pace for the industry (explosion of frequency bands)
- WW LTE-A and 5G Smartphone frequency bands and LTE-CA requirements.
- OEMs strategy to address complexity: multiple variants vs single SKU in high end devices
Multi-mode, Multi-band RF transceiver architecture overview:
- 2007-2017: From dual mode (2G-3G) to quad mode (2G,3G, LTE FDD, LTE TDD) devices: 10 years of evolution in RF transceivers
- Zero-IF transceivers and challenges in removing external RF interstage filters
Overview of some RF Front-end challenges:
- RF multiplexing complexity overview to address LTE single band, LTE-CA, and 4x4 MIMO operation for LTE-A Pro
- Additional challenges coming with 5G <6GHz and 5G mmWave operation
- Challenges in Multi-Mode Multi-Band Power Amplifier Front End Modules for LTE-A
- RF filtering & internal smartphone coexistence issues: example of single-chip challenges
- OTA performance & antenna challenges for 5G 4x4 MIMO operation
Addressing power consumption challenges:
- Battery technology evolution
- Challenges in measuring battery life in smartphones
- Application engines evolution: example of the ARM big.LITTLE architecture
- Power amplifier control schemes: from gain switching to envelope tracking
- Impact of 5G waveforms on PA efficiency
- Benefits of 3GPP cDRX on LTE power consumption: data vs VoLTE
- Benefits of small cell deployments on battery life