Britain's 20th Century Prime Ministers since the Second World War
The Oxford Experience is a residential summer programme providing one-week courses in a variety of subjects aimed at non-specialists. It offers a choice of seminars each week over a period of six weeks.
After world wars, in which Britain had maintained its position only by mortgaging its future, major adjustment was necessary. The Prime Minister’s office was crucial for envisioning what needed to be done, and putting the muscle of the British State behind implementing change. The course looks at the nine holders of the office, from Clement Attlee to Margaret Thatcher, who wrestled with the issues between 1945 and 1997, including disposing of an unwanted empire, military over-commitment, inadequate social provision, antiquated industry, an archaic political structure and the role of Europe. It considers their personalities and foibles, and how they used the authority of the office as well as seeking to understand the options they faced and their successes and failures.
Seminars meet each weekday morning, 09.15-10.45 and 11.15-12.45, with afternoons free for course-related field trips, individual study or exploring the many beautiful places in and around the city.
In this introductory session, we will identify the main challenges of Britain’s emergence as a post-imperial, modernised, European state, for its political system, economy and society; the function of the Prime Minister’s office, and the endowments of public image, skills, experience and political talent possessed by the eight men and one woman who strove, as incumbents of the office, to address the challenges.
The way the room for manoeuvre of Prime Ministers in the second half of the Twentieth Century was shaped and constrained by, personal political alliances, and by their relations with their political parties - Attlee, Wilson and Callaghan with the Labour Party and Churchill, Eden, Macmillan, Home, Heath and Thatcher with the Conservative Party.
The contribution of the Prime Ministers to the gradual transformation of Britain from an imperial state with global pretentions and ruined by war to a medium sized, modern state with attitude off the coast of Europe. We will look particularly at the approach each of them took to financial and economic affairs, ranging from the highly proficient and technocratic to the profoundly amateurish.
The way key turning points were handled, including the Suez crisis of 1956, applications to join the European Union in 1961 and 1982, confrontation between trade unions and the state over the thirty years from the 1960s, and relations with the United States, over the Cuban Missile crisis of 1962 Falklands War of 1975, and the Soviet Union, during the Cold War, including its end in 1991
Summarising, we will inter alia consider how each incumbent drew on the authority inherent in the Prime Ministership, including harnessing the power of the British state, and what each in their turn contributed to the office and to the unity of the United Kingdom.
Field Trip: Bodleian Library Manuscripts Department
Excursion Rating: Moderate
Excursion Ratings Key:
(as rated by course tutors)
Easy: Up to an hour's walk on even ground or less than half an hour's walk on rough ground.
Moderate: Up to two hours' walk on even ground or up to an hour's walk on rough and/or steep ground or up lots of stairs and steps.
Demanding: More than two hours' walk on even ground or up to two hours' walk on rough and/or steep ground or up lots of stairs and steps.
Clarke, Peter. Hope and Glory: Britain 1900-2000. London: Penguin, 2004.
Addison, Paul. No Turning Back: The Peacetime Revolutions of Post-War Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Hennessy, Peter. The Prime Minister: The Office and its Holders Since 1945. London: Penguin, 2001.
During your course, you will stay in typical Oxford student accommodation at Christ Church in buildings which range from the 18th to the 20th century. Bedrooms are modestly-furnished, do not have air-conditioning and are arranged on a staircase of four or five floors.
The fee £1545 includes a bedroom with private bathroom facilities (shower, washbasin and toilet). Most are single but a few twins are available for couples or those who wish to share with a friend. Those couples wishing to book a twin room should contact us direct email@example.com, as these rooms cannot be booked online.
There are also a few standard rooms available which all have their own washbasin and shaver point but the bath and toilet facilities on each staircase are shared. To apply for one of these rooms please select the ‘Programme Fee (with single standard accommodation and meals)’ option on the application form. Early application for these rooms is essential.
Most standard rooms are single but there are a few ‘twin sets’ (two single rooms opening off a sitting room). If you wish to book a twin set, please contact us direct firstname.lastname@example.org, as these rooms cannot be booked online.
Please indicate your accommodation preferences (either online or on your application form) together with a note of any mobility problems.
We regret that we are unable to offer you accommodation at Christ Church prior to or following your course. Additionally, family or friends who are not enrolled in the programme cannot be accommodated in college.
Programme fee (with single en-suite accom, field trip and meals): £1565.00
Programme fee (with single standard accom, field trip and meals): £1385.00
Michael's doctoral work at Cambridge University was in the colonial history of Africa. He has a Masters Degree from the London School of Economics, and has taught various topics in politics and twentieth century history.
There are no assessments for this course.
Online registration closes on Wednesday 1 May 2019 but please note that this course may be fully booked very quickly so early registration is recommended.
Terms and conditions
Terms and conditions for applicants and students on this course
Sources of funding
Information on financial support
Week 1 Courses - from Sun 07 Jul 2019 to Sat 13 Jul 2019
Week 2 Courses - from Sun 14 Jul 2019 to Sat 20 Jul 2019
Week 3 Courses - from Sun 21 Jul 2019 to Sat 27 Jul 2019
Week 4 Courses - from Sun 28 Jul 2019 to Sat 03 Aug 2019
Week 5 Courses - from Sun 04 Aug 2019 to Sat 10 Aug 2019
Week 6 Courses - from Sun 11 Aug 2019 to Sat 17 Aug 2019