Field Techniques for Surveying Mammals & Reptiles

Course summary

Field Techniques for Surveying Mammals & Reptiles


This course is designed to equip students with the skills, techniques and know-how necessary to undertake surveys of mammal and reptile populations or individuals with confidence. The course aims to enable students to make their own spatial and temporal observations and recordings of mammals and reptiles, and will explore how to design appropriate sampling strategies and protocols.

As a part-time course taught online, Field Techniques for Surveying Mammals and Reptiles is ideal for professional ecological consultants, environmental managers and rangers, research and postgraduate students, and volunteers that are seeking flexible study combined with expert training. The course can be taken from anywhere in the world and is international in its use of case studies and examples. Past students on the Ecological Survey Techniques programme have joined us from the UK, the USA, Australia, Africa and Europe.

Field Techniques for Surveying Mammals and Reptiles aims to create a rich workshop experience by encouraging direct student and tutor interaction and discussion in an online setting.

This course can be taken with or without Masters-level credit; credit enables students to demonstrate their academic achievement and can count towards further postgraduate study. Students taking the course for credit submit an assessment of up to 2000 words or equivalent, students taking the course without credit will receive a Certificate of Attendance upon successful completion of the course.

The Ecological Survey Techniques Programme can help professionals to apply for Chartered Status (such as Chartered Environmentalist and Chartered Ecologist), and to meet relevant professional competency thresholds. Further information can be found in our Chartered status and essential skills guide.

Thinking of applying? Explore materials or revisit our online open event.

For first-hand accounts from Ecological Survey Techniques students please visit our student spotlights page.

The course tutor will guide students through a series of key topics via reading materials, online activities, and discussion forums. The discussion forums will be the primary space where students are able to interact with one another and their tutor to discuss questions, solve problems and share ideas – just as they would expect to do in a face-to-face classroom setting.

The tutor was clearly trained in the language of e-learning as we were always supported and guided rather than corrected.

A Field Techniques for Surveying Mammals and Reptiles student

I truly liked the online study. It gave myself, and others, an opportunity we may not have been able to have in studying the materials.

Deborah, student

What I like the most was the fact that even being an online course, the whole structure of the website made it possible for me to communicate my thoughts and questions to the tutor and classmates. That way, when taking the course and following the topics I almost didn't notice the difference with a face-to-face class.

Marcela, student

Students will benefit from the expertise and practical experience of the course tutor throughout their time on the course, and will be able to receive advice and guidance tailored to the particular topic at hand. Students taking the course for credit will also benefit from individual feedback on their assessment submitted after the course.

Throughout their study, students will engage with the topics across a range of media including videos demonstrating techniques, interactive maps of Wytham Woods for monitoring badger setts, and discussion forum activities. Students will investigate trapping and restraint techniques, an extensive range of guidelines with legal and ethical considerations, as well as scat and print field sign surveys, camera traps and video surveillance.

All learning materials are made available through the course Virtual Learning Environment ‘Moodle’, and reading is available to download or is accessible via the Bodleian Libraries’ online library which provides an excellent range of e-books and e-journals. Via their Oxford username, students can gain access to all the University’s electronic resources enabling them to conduct their own reading and research in their own time.

Field Techniques for Surveying Mammals and Reptiles is part of the wider Ecological Survey Techniques Programme that offers a range of standalone short courses, at its heart rests the Postgraduate Certificate in Ecological Survey Techniques aimed at those wishing to take their professional development to the next level with an Oxford qualification.

Students who successfully complete this standalone module for credit (10 CATS points at level 7) can opt to transfer their credit to the PGCert, subject to the approval of the Course Director and acceptance on to the PGCert. Students successfully transferring credit to the PGCert can expect to receive a fees discount equal to the fees paid towards the standalone module; credit can be transferred up to 2 years after having been gained and is limited to a maximum for 2 modules for transfer. In order to join the PGCert a separate application process is required.

Programme details

Topics covered by the course in Field Techniques for Surveying Mammals and Reptiles include:

Introduction to mammals and reptiles: ‘A good detective knows their mark’; What is a mammal?; What is a reptile?

Rationale for surveying mammals and reptiles - why survey?: Ecological objectives; Legal objectives; Utilisation objectives; Model or indicator species objectives

Conducting a survey - basic considerations: Defining the principles; First steps and considerations; The observer effect

Choosing a survey technique: direct and indirect techniques: Direct and indirect techniques (trapping, noosing, hand capturing, marking individuals); A classification of direct and indirect survey techniques

Direct techniques: observations, total counts, trapping and restraint

Indirect techniques: field sign surveys; camera traps and surveillance

Designing a sampling strategy or protocol: Standard protocols; Random, systematic and stratified samples; Line transects and quadrats; Mapping and trapping

Recording and storing data: Designing a data recording sheet; Storing data

Data application - making sure you have the right data to accomplish your survey goals: What type of data?; Indices for analysing mammal and reptile survey data

Case study: the badger project, Wytham Woods, UK


Non-accredited Study

To successfully complete the course and receive a Certificate of Attendance, active participation of at least one forum post per week, to the satisfaction of the course tutor, in the online course forums is required. The PDF sample above is an illustration only, and the wording will reflect the course and dates attended.

Accredited Study

The University of Oxford Department for Continuing Education offers Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (CATS) points for the course. Participants contributing to all the forums and successfully completing the assessment will obtain 10 CATS-equivalent points (FHEQ level 7) which may count towards a Master’s level qualification.

For information on CATS points and credit transfer, including conversion to US academic credits and European academic credits (ECTS), please visit the CATS Points FAQ page.

IT requirements

This course is delivered online and uses the Department’s online assignment submission system (for the course asignment). In order to meet course requirements, students will need access to the Internet and a computer meeting our recommended minimum computer specification.


Accredited study: £770.00
Non-accredited study: £440.00
Student rate (non-accredited study): £330.00


Dr Jocelyne Hughes


Programme Director in Ecological Survey Techniques and Departmental Lecturer at OUDCE (part-time, teaching and course administration). Research associate with the Water Research Group at the School of Geography & the Environment, Oxford.

Previous posts: College lecturer  at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford; research fellow at University College London; University Lectureships at the University of Reading and the University of Melbourne, Australia.

Member of the British Ecological Society; fellow of the Royal Geographical Society; member of the Commonwealth Scholars alumni network; member of the Freshwater Biological Association; organiser of my local Wildlife Conservation Group working with volunteers to carry out wildlife conservation projects.


Director of the Postgraduate Certificate in Ecological Survey Techniques which is mostly taught online.

Teach and supervise  on a variety of postgraduate courses at the University of Oxford, including the MSc in Water Science, Policy & Management, and the Postgraduate Diploma in International Wildlife Conservation Practice.

As part of the PG Cert in Ecological Survey Techniques at OUDCE I teach an online postgraduate training course in Field Techniques for Surveying Vegetation; I teach freshwater and wetland ecology on the MSc in Water, Science, Policy & Management in the Geography Department; and Vegetation Survey Techniques for Zoologists at WildCRU, Zoology Department. I believe that ecology has to be taught in the field wherever possible, and I underpin all my teaching with the practical field techniques needed to answer research questions.

I have successfully raised grants from NERC to teach doctoral training courses in practical skills in freshwater ecology, statistics, GIS, data visualisation, insect taxonomy etc.

External examiner at University College London.

Research interests

My research focuses on understanding and quantifying the ecology, hydrology and management of wetlands and freshwater habitats. I have particular interests in the ecological importance of microflow environments provided by aquatic plants in rivers and wetlands; water and nutrient cycling in wetlands; wetland vegetation dynamics; constructed wetlands; biogeography of aquatic plants; and the conservation of freshwaters.

I have carried out field survey work in a diversity of freshwater habitats in Tunisia, Australia, Antarctica, Guatemala and the UK. I am a research associate in the Water Research Group in the School of Geography & the Environment at Oxford, and I am always keen to discuss possible collaborations in interdisciplinary research in pure and applied freshwater processes/ecology.

Marley Fen Project: I am part of a team carrying out field research and monitoring into plant-water relationships at Marley Fen in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire. The results of our research are being used directly in the management plan for this SSSI site.

Reduction of Algal Loading on Water Treatment Works: I co-supervise a research project investigating the ecological functions of a floating reed bed, Living-Filter, on Farmoor Reservoir, for water treatment. The DPhil is funded by Thames Water and involves an industrial collaboration between Aquatic Engineering, Thames Water and the Department for Engineering Science at Oxford University. The research involves field investigations at Farmoor Reservoir and lab experiments using bioreactors at Begbroke Science Park.

Freshwater Ecology & Conservation: A Handbook of Techniques: I am currently editing the freshwater volume in the TECS series, to be published by Oxford University Press

D.Phil student- Ana Castro-Castellon, Department of Engineering Science (Living-Filter: floating biofiltration system for phytoplanton reduction on water treatment works)

MSc student 2015- Clarke Knight, School of Geography & the Environment (diversity and distribution of non-native invasive shrimps in the River Thames and tributaries)

MSc student 2014- Thanti Octavianti, School of Geography & the Environment (phosphorous loads in the Upper Thames catchment)


Selected Publications:

Castro-Castellon, AT, Chipps, MJ, Hughes, JMR & Hankins, NP (2014) Living-Filter: an in-reservoir biofiltration system for phytoplankton reduction at the abstraction point. In (eds. Nakamoto, Graham, Collins and Gimbel) Progress in Slow Sand and Alternative Biofiltration Processes- Further Developments and Applications, pp. 405-412,  IWA Publishing, London


Shi, JZ, Yan-Hong, L, Zhao, M & Hughes, JMR (2013) Hydrological characteristics of vegetated river flows: a laboratory flume study. Hydrological Sciences Journal 58, 1047-58

Co-editor Hydrology & Hydrochemistry of British Wetlands, John Wiley & Sons

Author Aquatic Plants of Tasmania, (Illustrations by Georgina Davis) University of Melbourne

Co-author Inventory of Tunisian Wetlands, University College London, US Fish & Wildlife Service, Ramsar Bureau

Author of first vegetation survey and map of subantarctic Heard Island (Australian Antarctic Territory) published in Polar Biology

Teaching methods

The teaching time frame covers 5 weeks. The content covered is roughly comparable to 1 week full-time study, students can expect to engage with and contribute to the course for around 10-15 hours per week depending on whether it is taken for credit or not. The course tutor will engage online for no less than 6 hours per week, this is usually distributed across each week and will focus on particular topics and activities.

There is no set time to log in to the course, which makes it ideal for students in different time zones as well as those wishing to study flexibly on a weekly basis; topics will be covered following a suggested calendar of activity, ensuring that activities, discussion and reading are completed within the 5 week duration and at an even pace with other students.

Assessment methods

Students undertaking the course for academic credit must submit a summative written assignment of up to 2,000 words or equivalent. This is due approximately two weeks after the final day of the course. The pass mark is set at 50%, work awarded 70% or over will qualify for a distinction.


We strongly recommend that you download and save files before completing to ensure that all your changes are saved.

Apply to take the course for academic credit

If you are applying to take this course for academic credit you will need to complete and return the following documents, alongside a copy of your CV. Please ensure you read the guidance notes before completing the application form, as any errors resulting from failure to do so may delay your application.

Terms and Conditions


Apply to take the course not for academic credit

If you do not wish to take this course for academic credit you will need to complete and return the following document, or use the ‘enrol online’ button below. Please ensure you read the guidance notes before completing the application form, as any errors resulting from failure to do so may delay your application.

Terms and Conditions


Selection criteria

CANDIDATES: applying for academic credit

All candidates will need to:

  1. Hold a minimum qualification equivalent to a first Honours Degree (BA, BSc, etc). Non-graduates may be considered if they are able to demonstrate considerable experience in a relevant field. If in doubt, please email;
  2. Offer some first-hand knowledge and/or experience of field work or conservation issues;
  3. Satisfy the minimum required English language criteria set by the University, being either a native English speaker, or able to offer test results as specified. Applicants with borderline scores may be accepted on condition that they attend a language course and gain an acceptable score;
  4. Demonstrate an ability to be able to commit the necessary time to study;
  5. Have good access to a computer and a fast/reliable internet connection;
  6. Demonstrate an ability to work alongside fellow students and tutors as part of an online community and independently.


Where requested, this should be supplied with your application. Applicants are advised to email should they be unsure about the suitability of the referees they intend to use.

Written work

Please note that we do not request submission of written work.