Stephen is a historic environment professional based in Edinburgh. His original academic training was in natural sciences, leading to doctoral research in environmental archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology in London. He was a director of Headland Archaeology from 1996 but in 2008 he stepped back from this role to concentrate solely on heritage consultancy work. Over the past 15 years he has worked primarily in environmental impact assessment with a focus on the assessment of development-related impacts on setting. He regularly gives evidence as an expert witness in public inquiries and hearings.