The Wars of The Roses: Power, Politics and Personalities (Online)
The recent discovery of Richard III's remains in Leicester highlights the dynamic new research being conducted into the period known as the Wars of the Roses. This courses asks students to engage with the latest work on this exciting and tumultous period.
The Wars of the Roses were a time of political upheaval and warfare in England during the fifteenth century. They were rooted in the disastrous reign of Henry VI and erupted into rebellions, battles and popular risings. Fought by lords and commons, for the cause of good government, they were also conflicts between families and friends concerned with property and power.
Recent historical research offers new insights into government records, gentry letters and papers and popular ballads. Due to the diverse nature of the Wars of the Roses, historians continue to generate debates and questions, to which students taking this course can themselves directly contribute.
For information on how the courses work, and a link to our course demonstration site, please click here.
1. Introduction: Causes of the Wars of the Roses
- Henry VI and Richard, duke of York
- Relations between Crown and nobility
- Relations with France
- Economics of the fifteenth century
- Rise of Parliament
2. Interpreting the Sources: Chronicles, Letters, Ballads and Governmental Rolls
- How to interpret narrative sources
- Letter collections
- Parliament Rolls
- Manifestoes, tracts and ballads
- Cultural material
3. Henry VI: Minority, Rule and Revolt
- Regency government of England 1422–37
- French wars
- Henry VI’s majority
- Marriage to Margaret of Anjou (1430–82)
- Economic crisis and rebellion
- 1453-5: The king’s illness and the beginning of hostilities
4. The Fall of the House of Lancaster: Edward IVs Challenge
- 1455: Aftermath of the battle
- Attempts at reconciliation
- The Act of Accord
- 1461: King Edward IV and the Battle of Towton: Two kings in England
- Elizabeth Woodville
- Warwick’s rebellion
5. The Wars of the Roses: Warfare, Armies and Military Tactics
- Logistics and feeding a medieval army
- Military leadership and a warrior queen
- Chivalry, ransom and prisoners of war
- Modern research into the casualties from the Battle of Towton (1461)
- The common soldier
6. The Wars of the Roses: Local Experiences
- Early family background
- Elizabeth Paston: Marriages, rebellion and treason
- John Paston Snr and his wife Margaret (Margery) Mautby
- Local violence and warfare
- Sir John Paston (2nd)
- Changing allegiances: local and national politics
7. Return of Henry VI and the Victory of Edward IV
- Edward IV in exile and the Burgundian connection
- Edward IV returns to England
- Battle of Barnet: 14 April 1471
- Battle of Tewkesbury: 4 May 1471
- The victory of Edward IV and the death of Henry VI
- The cult of King Henry VI
- Edward IV’s 2nd reign (1471–83)
8. Royal Power: The Reputation of Richard III
- Early background: Constable of England and royal lieutenant of the north
- Richard and the Wars of the Roses
- Protector of the realm and the princes in the Tower
- King (1483–85) and the man
- Henry Tudor’s rise and the Battle of Bosworth
- Posthumous reputation: Man or myth?
- What will the discovery of the remains of Richard III mean to history?
9. Shakespeare’s Wars of the Roses and the ‘Tudor Myth’
- Shakespeare’s Wars of the Roses plays
- Shakespeare’s plays: Henry VI part 1
- Shakespeare’s plays: Henry VI part 2
- Shakespeare’s plays: Henry VI part 3
- Shakespeare’s plays: Richard III
- Shakespeare and the ‘Tudor Myth’
10. The legacy of the Wars of the Roses: Early Tudor government
- King Henry VII and the nobility
- Catherine of Valois
- Margaret Beaufort
- Henry VII’s marriage to Elizabeth of York
- Henry VII’s foreign policy
- Rebellions and threats to Henry VII’s reign
- Henry VII’s legacy
We strongly recommend that you try to find a little time each week to engage in the online conversations (at times that are convenient to you) as the forums are an integral, and very rewarding, part of the course and the online learning experience.
To participate in this course you will need to have regular access to the Internet and you will need to buy the following book:
C. Carpenter, The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, c.1437-1509 [Cambridge University Press, 1997] ISBN: 0521318742
To earn credit (CATS points) for your course you will need to register and pay an additional £10 fee for each course you enrol on. You can do this by ticking the relevant box at the bottom of the enrolment form or when enrolling online. If you do not register when you enrol, you have up until the course start date to register and pay the £10 fee.
For more information on CATS point please click on the link below: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/studentsupport/faq/cats.php
Coursework is an integral part of all online courses and everyone enrolled will be expected to do coursework, but only those who have registered for credit will be awarded CATS points for completing work at the required standard. If you are enrolled on the Certificate of Higher Education you need to indicate this on the enrolment form but there is no additional registration fee.
Assignments are not graded but are marked either pass or fail.
All students who successfully complete this course, whether registered for credit or not, are eligible for a Certificate of Completion. Completion consists of submitting both course assignments and actively participating in the course forums. Certificates will be available, online, for those who qualify after the course finishes.
This course is delivered online; to participate you must to be familiar with using a computer for purposes such as sending email and searching the Internet. You will also need regular access to the Internet and a computer meeting our recommended minimum computer specification.
Home/EU Fee: £260.00
Non-EU Fee: £295.00
Take this course for CATS points: £10.00
Dr Katherine Benson
Katherine Benson completed her doctorate on medieval diplomacy at the University of Reading, where she also taught in the history department. Her interests focus on political, diplomatic, and cultural history between 1300 and 1600. She has tutored online courses for the department for three years.
This course aims to provide students with an understanding of the most recent research into social, economic, political and cultural changes in English society during the period 1450-1500. It will give students an appreciation of the huge range of textual, architectural and archaeological sources which can be used to gain further insight into the Wars of the Roses.
- To examine the multifaceted causes of the Wars of the Roses.
- To assess the extent and nature of social, economic and political change in the period 1450-1500.
- To analyse the most recent scholarly debates.
By the end of this course students will be expected to understand:
- The most recent research into the causes of the Wars of the Roses.
- The short term and longer term structural changes precipitated by the conflict.
- The nature of the evidence of the period.
By the end of this course students will be expected to have gained the following skills:
- To be able to assess medieval textual and visual sources in order to evaluate the social, economic and political change in the period 1450-1500.
- To be able to critically appraise the relevant scholarly literature.
Assessment for this course is based on two written assignments - one short assignment of 500 words due half way through the course and one longer assignment of 1500 words due at the end of the course.
Assignments are not graded but are marked either pass or fail.
Please use the 'Book' or 'Apply' button on this page. Alternatively, please contact us to obtain an application form.
Level and demands
FHEQ level 4, 10 weeks, approx 10 hours per week, therefore a total of about 100 study hours.
Terms and conditions
Terms and conditions for applicants and students on this course
Sources of funding
Information on financial support