1. Who are the Celts?
A synopsis of popular conception of the Celtic peoples from Classical times through to the present.
- First appearances
- Classical stereotyping
- ‘New World’ analogies
- Re-inventing the past
- Material evidence of a Celtic world
2. Atlantic beginnings: new thoughts on the origins of the Celts
Outlining the separate threads of linguisitc, archaeological, historical, and genetic evidence which suggests the Celts originated in the Atlantic coastal regions.
- The Celtic languages
- Mobility and trade
- 2The Beaker cultural package
- Genetic evidence
3. Emerging elites in the heart of 1st millennium BC Europe
Explores the social structure of the Hallstatt culture with specific reference to princely burials and what we can learn from them.
- Ancient metallurgy – Copper, Bronze, and Iron
- Hallstatt: discovering an early centre
- What burials can teach us about the living
- Hallstatt: 650-450 BC
- The ‘Princess’ of Vix
- Early La Tène: 450-300BC
4. Mediterranean contact, trade and warfare
Examines the state of play between Greek, Etruscan, Phoenician, and Roman powers in the Mediterranean and how related events generated responses in Celtic Europe.
- A crowded Middle Sea
- Trade and exchange
- Celts in Italy
- Accounts of militant Celts in the east
- Weapons and warfare
- First assignment
5. Celtic Art: is it Celtic and is it art?
Examines the history of Celtic Art and questions the importance of the aesthetic in the production, use, and display of these objects by the ancient Celts. Concepts of style, hybridisation, and regionality will be introduced.
- Styles of Celtic art
- Symbolism and meaning
- Technologies of enchantment
- Types of objects
- Critical assessment of ‘art’
6. Religion and ritual in the Celtic world
Introduces the evidence for religious belief in the Celtic world relying on the archaeological evidence and historical texts concerning ritual, deities, and the Druids.
- The Druids
- Places of worship
- Spirituality and the natural world
- Celtic deities
- Human sacrifice?
- Into the afterlife
7. Urbanisation and the barbarian economy
Aspects of Iron Age economy will be explored, as well as the role of hill forts and oppida. Concepts of what constitutes an urban space will be discussed with reference to pre-Roman 'barbarian' towns.
- Hillforts – Iron Age Castles?
- Oppida – proto-towns?
- Rural settlement
8. In depth - Gaul
What we know about Celtic Gaul from both Caesar's campaigns and from the archaeology will be examined, with some sites such as Mont Beauvray and Mont Lassois explored at a more detailed level.
- Caesar’s campaigns – the ethnographic report
- Caesar’s battles – Celtic warfare
- Caesar’s Alliances – Celtic leadership structure
- Vercingetorix and the end of the wars
- The End of a Celtic Gaul?
9. Late Celtic Britain and Ireland
What we know about Britain and Ireland in the Iron Age, with specific reference to sites such as Danebury, Yeavering Bell, and St Albans. The concept of Romanisation will be introduced.
- Caesar and Claudius
- The Romanisation of Britain
- The Boudiccan Revolt
- The North, Wales, and Scotland
- Roman Ireland?
10. Twilight of the Celts?: the 'Celtic fringe' in a post-Roman world
- A post-Roman Celtic world
- The Celtic church
- Irish ‘Celtic’ civilization
- Vernacular literature
- Celtic identity – then and now
- Concluding thoughts
The narrative of the Celtic culture after 'Romanisation' and into the Saxon and Viking eras will be summarised, as well as the pervasive influence of Celtic language and styles in the Western extremity of Europe. The post-medieval Celtic 'diaspora' will be examined as well as its effect on Celtic identity today. This summary will reference back to Unit one, hopefully providing a sense of a completed journey.
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